Communication Impairments/Disorders

"The term communication disorders encompasses a wide variety of problems in language, speech, and hearing. Speech and language impairments include articulation problems, voice disorders, fluency problems (such as stuttering), aphasia (difficulty in using words, usually as a result of a brain injury), and delays in speech and/or language. Speech and language delays may be due to many factors, including environmental factors or hearing loss."
From the ERIC database Children with Communication Disorders. ERIC Digest #E470 (Revised #419).

Communication Impairments or Disorders fall into the following categories:

Helpful Information:

Children with Communication Disorders - A child with speech or language delays may present a variety of characteristics including the inability to follow directions, slow and incomprehensible speech, and pronounced difficulties in syntax and articulation. SYNTAX refers to the order of words in a sentence, and ARTICULATION refers to the manner in which sounds are formed. Articulation disorders are characterized by the substitution of one sound for another or the omission or distortion of certain sounds..."
From the ERIC database -- Children with Communication Disorders.1990.

Comeunity: Speech and Language Dysfunction in Children
Great selection of articles and overrview of resources for parents of children with speech or language dysfunction.

Early Identification of Speech-Language Disorders - "Early identification includes the evaluation and treatment provided to families and their children under three years old who have, or are at risk for having, a disability or delay in speech, language, or hearing. ... Children identified as at-risk or high-risk, such as those from neonatal intensive care units, should be tested early and at regular intervals. Other risk factors include diagnosed medical conditions, such as chronic ear infections; biological factors, such as fetal alcohol syndrome; genetic defects, such as Down Syndrome; neurological defects, such as cerebral palsy; or developmental disorders, such as delayed language. Children with no obvious high risk factors should be evaluated if their speech and language is not similar to that of other children of the same age. "from the Learning Disabilities Association FACT SHEET.

Factsheets on voice, speech and language from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD).

Speech and Language: Developmental Milestones - Development and milestones of articulation and language from birth to five years old.

Website of Arina Coetzee, S-LP (South Africa). Excellent information about speech and language production, milestones, delays vs. disorders, and more.